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CalPERS, CalSTRS to vote against some Wells Fargo directors
Published 5:23 pm, Friday, April 21, 2017
Photo: Rogelio V. Solis, Associated Press
This April 11, 2017, photo shows a Wells Fargo bank in northeast Jackson, Miss. On Friday, April 21, 2017, Wells Fargo agreed to expand a recently settled class-action lawsuit by an additional $32 million as well as extend claims for fraudulent accounts that may have been opened going back to 2002. (AP Photo/Rogelio V. Solis) less
This April 11, 2017, photo shows a Wells Fargo bank in northeast Jackson, Miss. On Friday, April 21, 2017, Wells Fargo agreed to expand a recently settled class-action lawsuit by an additional $32 million as ... more
Photo: Rogelio V. Solis, Associated Press
The state’s two largest public pension systems each said Friday they are voting against nine of Wells Fargo’s 15 directors, all of whom are standing for re-election at the company’s annual meeting in Florida Tuesday.
“We believe these directors failed in their oversight responsibilities during the retail banking controversy at the company. Additionally, some of these nominees have tenures of 12 years or more, which we believe could compromise director independence,” the California Public Employees Retirement System said.
On Sept. 8, in a settlement with regulators, Wells disclosed that about 5,300 employees had been fired since 2011 for opening deposit and credit card accounts that customers probably did not know about or want, allegedly to meet aggressive sales goals.
CalPERS and the California State Teachers’ Retirement System are voting against John Baker II, John Chen, Lloyd Dean, Donald James, Cynthia Milligan, Federico Peña, Stephen Sanger, Susan G. Swenson and Enrique Hernandez, Jr.
“These board members bear responsibility for the failure of oversight of sales practices at Wells Fargo, which (a board report issued last week) indicated had been growing since 2007 and which peaked in 2013,” the teachers system said in a statement.
They are voting for the board members who have served three years or less: Elizabeth Duke, Karen Peetz, James Quigley, Ronald Sargent, Suzanne Vautrinot and Tim Sloan. In October, Sloan was named CEO and joined the board as its only non-independent director. At the same time, John Stumpf resigned as CEO and chairman and Sanger became chairman.
A CalPERS spokesman said it was focusing its “no” votes on directors who had served from 2013 or earlier, because “that is the time frame the primary oversight failures had occurred.”
On Wednesday, California Treasurer John Chiang, who is a board member of both retirement systems, issued a press release urging shareholders and to vote against all five directors on Wells Fargo’s corporate responsibility committee, which oversees the bank’s reputational risk and customer service and complaints. They are Baker, Dean, Hernandez, Milligan and Peña. He also recommended voting against the bank’s two longest-serving directors who are not on that committee, Sanger and Swenson.
CalPERS owns about 13.9 million Wells Fargo shares and the teachers’ system owns 11.6 million. Together they own about 0.5 percent of the company’s shares.
CalPERS is also voting against the ratification of KPMG as the company’s auditor. “We have concerns over a potential lapse of internal controls during the extended period of abusive sales tactics at the company. Additionally, KPMG has a tenure of 86 years we believe the company should explore auditor rotation to ensure a fresh perspective,” it said.
Two companies that advise large investors on how to vote in corporate elections have also recommended against some directors for failing to do more to stop the fraud. Institutional Shareholder Services is recommending against 12. Glass Lewis of San Francisco is recommending against four, plus two others because they serve on too many boards.
Last week, Berkshire Hathaway, Wells Fargo’s largest shareholder with a roughly 10 percent stake, said it and was voting its shares in favor of all 15 directors.
Kathleen Pender is a San Francisco Chronicle columnist. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Twitter: @kathpender
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Frank Sinatra"Sinatra" redirects here. For other uses with the name Sinatra, see Sinatra (disambiguation).
Francis Albert Sinatra ( / s ɪ ˈ n ɑː t r ə / ; Italian: [siˈnaːtra] ; December 12, 1915 – May 14, 1998) was an American singer, actor, and producer who was one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century. He is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 150 million records worldwide.  Born in Hoboken, New Jersey, to Italian immigrants, Sinatra began his musical career in the swing era with bandleaders Harry James and Tommy Dorsey. Sinatra found success as a solo artist after he signed with Columbia Records in 1943, becoming the idol of the "bobby soxers". He released his debut album, The Voice of Frank Sinatra , in 1946. Sinatra's professional career had stalled by the early 1950s, and he turned to Las Vegas, where he became one of its best known residency performers as part of the Rat Pack. His career was reborn in 1953 with the success of From Here to Eternity , with his performance subsequently winning an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. Sinatra released several critically lauded albums, including In the Wee Small Hours (1955), Songs for Swingin' Lovers! (1956), Come Fly with Me (1958), Only the Lonely (1958) and Nice 'n' Easy (1960). Frank Sinatra
Sinatra in 1957's Pal Joey
Francis Albert Sinatra
( 1915-12-12 ) December 12, 1915
Hoboken, New Jersey, U.S. 
May 14, 1998 ( 1998-05-14 ) (aged 82)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Desert Memorial Park
Cathedral City, California, U.S.
Singer, actor, producer
Nancy Barbato ( m. 1939 ; div. 1951 )
Ava Gardner ( m. 1951; div. 1957)
Mia Farrow ( m. 1966 ; div. 1968)
Barbara Marx ( m. 1976 )
Frank Sinatra, Jr.
Antonino Martino Sinatra
- Traditional pop
- easy listening
- vocal jazz
- RCA Victor
- Warner Bros
Sinatra left Capitol in 1960 to start his own record label, Reprise Records, and released a string of successful albums. In 1965, he recorded the retrospective September of My Years , starred in the Emmy-winning television special Frank Sinatra: A Man and His Music , and released the tracks "Strangers in the Night" and "My Way". After releasing Sinatra at the Sands , recorded at the Sands Hotel and Casino in Vegas with frequent collaborator Count Basie in early 1966, the following year he recorded one of his most famous collaborations with Tom Jobim, the album Francis Albert Sinatra & Antonio Carlos Jobim . It was followed by 1968's collaboration with Duke Ellington. Sinatra retired for the first time in 1971, but came out of retirement two years later and recorded several albums and resumed performing at Caesars Palace, and reached success in 1980 with "New York, New York". Using his Las Vegas shows as a home base, he toured both within the United States and internationally until a short time before his death in 1998.
Sinatra forged a highly successful career as a film actor. After winning an Academy Award for From Here to Eternity , he starred in The Man with the Golden Arm (1955), and received critical acclaim for his performance in The Manchurian Candidate (1962). He appeared in various musicals such as On the Town (1949), Guys and Dolls (1955), High Society (1956), and Pal Joey (1957), winning another Golden Globe for the latter. Toward the end of his career, he became associated with playing detectives, including the title character in Tony Rome (1967). Sinatra would later receive the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1971. On television, The Frank Sinatra Show began on ABC in 1950, and he continued to make appearances on television throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Sinatra was also heavily involved with politics from the mid-1940s, and actively campaigned for presidents such as Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan, though before Kennedy's death Sinatra's alleged Mafia connections led to his being snubbed. 
While Sinatra never formally learned how to read music, he had an impressive understanding of it, and he worked very hard from a young age to improve his abilities in all aspects of music. A perfectionist, renowned for his dress sense and performing presence, he always insisted on recording live with his band. His bright blue eyes earned him the popular nickname "Ol' Blue Eyes". Sinatra led a colorful personal life, and was often involved in turbulent affairs with women, such as with his second wife Ava Gardner. He went on to marry Mia Farrow in 1966 and Barbara Marx in 1976. Sinatra had several violent confrontations, usually with journalists he felt had crossed him, or work bosses with whom he had disagreements. He was honored at the Kennedy Center Honors in 1983, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Ronald Reagan in 1985, and the Congressional Gold Medal in 1997. Sinatra was also the recipient of eleven Grammy Awards, including the Grammy Trustees Award, Grammy Legend Award and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. After his death, American music critic Robert Christgau called him "the greatest singer of the 20th century",  and he continues to be seen as an iconic figure. 
Early life Edit
Main article: Early life of Frank Sinatra
Hoboken, New Jersey, early 20th century
Francis Albert Sinatra [a] was born on December 12, 1915, in an upstairs tenement at 415 Monroe Street in Hoboken, New Jersey.  [b] He was the only child of Italian immigrants Antonino Martino "Marty" Sinatra  and Natalina "Dolly" Garaventa.   [c] Sinatra weighed 13.5 pounds (6.1 kg) at birth and had to be delivered with the aid of forceps, which caused severe scarring to his left cheek, neck, and ear, and perforated his ear drum, damage that remained for life.  Due to his injuries at birth, his baptism at St. Francis Church in Hoboken was delayed until April 2, 1916.  A childhood operation on his mastoid bone left major scarring on his neck, and during adolescence he suffered from cystic acne that scarred his face and neck.  Sinatra was raised Roman Catholic. 
When Sinatra's mother was a child, her pretty face earned her the nickname "Dolly." Energetic and driven,  biographers believe that she was the dominant factor in the development of her son's personality traits and extraordinary self-confidence.  Barbara Sinatra claims that Dolly was abusive to him as a child, and "knocked him around a lot".  Dolly became influential in Hoboken and in local Democratic Party circles.  She worked as a midwife, earning $50 for each delivery,  and according to Sinatra biographer Kitty Kelley, also ran an illegal abortion service that catered to Italian Catholic girls for which she was nicknamed "Hatpin Dolly".  [d] She also had a gift for languages and served as a local interpreter.  Sinatra's illiterate father was a bantamweight boxer who fought under the name Marty O'Brien.  He later worked for 24 years at the Hoboken Fire Department, working his way up to captain.  Sinatra spent much time at his parents' tavern in Hoboken, [e] working on his homework and occasionally singing a song on top of the player piano for spare change.  During the Great Depression, Dolly provided money to her son for outings with friends and to buy expensive clothes, resulting in neighbors describing him as the "best-dressed kid in the neighborhood".  Excessively thin and small as a child and young man, Sinatra's skinny frame later became a staple of jokes during stage shows.  
"They'd fought through his childhood and continued to do so until her dying day. But I believe that to counter her steel will he'd developed his own. To prove her wrong when she belittled his choice of career ... Their friction first had shaped him; that, I think, had remained to the end and a litmus test of the grit in his bones. It helped keep him at the top of his game."
—Sinatra's daughter Nancy on the importance of his mother Dolly in his life and character. 
Sinatra developed an interest in music, particularly big band jazz, at a young age.  He listened to Gene Austin, Rudy Vallée, Russ Colombo, and Bob Eberly, and "idolized" Bing Crosby.  Sinatra's maternal uncle, Domenico, gave him a ukulele for his 15th birthday, and he began performing at family gatherings.  Sinatra attended David E. Rue Jr. High School from 1928,  and A. J. Demarest High School in 1931, where he arranged bands for school dances.  He left without graduating, having attended only 47 days before being expelled for "general rowdiness".  To please his mother, he enrolled at Drake Business School, but departed after 11 months.  Dolly found Sinatra work as a delivery boy at the Jersey Observer newspaper, where his godfather Frank Garrick worked, [f] and after that, Sinatra was a riveter at the Tietjen and Lang shipyard.  He performed in local Hoboken social clubs such as The Cat's Meow and The Comedy Club, and sang for free on radio stations such as WAAT in Jersey City.  In New York, Sinatra found jobs singing for his supper or for cigarettes.  To improve his speech, he began taking elocution lessons for a dollar each from vocal coach John Quinlan, who was one of the first people to notice his impressive vocal range. 
See also: Frank Sinatra discography
Music career Edit
Hoboken Four and Harry James (1935–1939) Edit
Sinatra ( far right ) with the Hoboken Four on Major Bowes' Amateur Hour in 1935
Sinatra began singing professionally as a teenager, but he learned music by ear and never learned to read music.   He got his first break in 1935 when his mother persuaded a local singing group, the 3 Flashes, to let him join. Fred Tamburro, the group's baritone, stated that "Frank hung around us like we were gods or something", admitting that they only took him on board because he owned a car [g] and could chauffeur the group around. Sinatra soon learned they were auditioning for the Major Bowes Amateur Hour show, and "begged" the group to let him in on the act.  With Sinatra, the group became known as the Hoboken Four, and passed an audition from Edward Bowes to appear on the Major Bowes Amateur Hour show. They each earned $12.50 for the appearance,  and ended up attracting 40,000 votes and won first prize—a six-month contract to perform on stage and radio across the United States.  Sinatra quickly became the group's lead singer, and, much to the jealousy of his fellow group members, garnered most of the attention from girls.  [h] Due to the success of the group, Bowes kept asking for them to return, disguised under different names, varying from "The Seacaucus Cockamamies" to "The Bayonne Bacalas". 
Harry James in 1942
In 1938, Sinatra found employment as a singing waiter at a roadhouse called "The Rustic Cabin" in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, for which he was paid $15 a week.  The roadhouse was connected to the WNEW radio station in New York City, and he began performing with a group live during the Dance Parade show.  Despite the low salary, Sinatra felt that this was the break he was looking for, and boasted to friends that he was going to "become so big that no one could ever touch him".  In March 1939, saxophone player Frank Mane, who knew Sinatra from Jersey City radio station WAAT where both performed on live broadcasts, arranged for him to audition and record "Our Love", his first solo studio recording.  [i] In June, bandleader Harry James, who had heard Sinatra sing on "Dance Parade", signed a two-year contract of $75 a week one evening after a show at the Paramount Theatre in New York.  [j] It was with the James band that Sinatra released his first commercial record "From the Bottom of My Heart" in July. No more than 8,000 copies of the record were sold,  and further records released with James through 1939, such as "All or Nothing At All", also had weak sales on their initial release.  Thanks to his vocal training, Sinatra could now sing two tones higher, and developed a repertoire which included songs such as "My Buddy", "Willow Weep for Me", "It's Funny to Everyone But Me", "Here Comes the Night", "On a Little Street in Singapore", "Ciribiribin" and "Every Day of My Life". 
Tommy Dorsey years (1939–1942) Edit
Sinatra performing at the Rustic Cabin in 1938
Tommy Dorsey in The Fabulous Dorseys (1947)
Sinatra became increasingly frustrated with the status of the Harry James band, feeling that he was not achieving the major success and acclaim he was looking for. His pianist and close friend Hank Sanicola persuaded him to stay with the group,  but in November 1939 he left James to replace Jack Leonard [k] as the lead singer of the Tommy Dorsey band. Sinatra signed a contract with Dorsey for $125 a week at Palmer House in Chicago,  and James agreed amicably to release Sinatra from his contract.  [l] On January 26, 1940, he made his first public appearance with the band at the Coronado Theatre in Rockford, Illinois,  opening the show with "Stardust".  Dorsey recalled: "You could almost feel the excitement coming up out of the crowds when the kid stood up to sing. Remember, he was no matinée idol. He was just a skinny kid with big ears. I used to stand there so amazed I'd almost forget to take my own solos".  Dorsey was a major influence on Sinatra and became a father figure. Sinatra copied Dorsey's mannerisms and traits, becoming a demanding perfectionist like him, even adopting his hobby of toy trains. He asked Dorsey to be godfather to his daughter Nancy in June 1940.  Sinatra later said that "The only two people I've ever been afraid of are my mother and Tommy Dorsey".  Though Kelley claims that Sinatra and drummer Buddy Rich were bitter rivals, [m] other authors state that they were friends and even roommates when the band was on the road, but professional jealousy surfaced as both men wanted to be considered the star of Dorsey's band. Later, Sinatra helped Rich form his own band with a $25,000 loan and provided financial help to Rich during times of the drummer's serious illness. 
In his first year with Dorsey, Sinatra recorded over forty songs. Sinatra's first vocal hit was the song "Polka Dots and Moonbeams" in late April 1940.  Two more chart appearances followed with "Say It" and "Imagination", which was Sinatra's first top-10 hit.  His fourth chart appearance was "I'll Never Smile Again", topping the charts for twelve weeks beginning in mid-July.  Other records with Tommy Dorsey issued by RCA Victor include "Our Love Affair" and "Stardust" in 1940; "Oh! Look at Me Now", "Dolores", "Everything Happens to Me" and "This Love of Mine" in 1941; "Just as Though You Were There", "Take Me" and "There Are Such Things" in 1942; and "It Started All Over Again", "In the Blue of Evening" and "It's Always You" in 1943.  As his success and popularity grew, Sinatra pushed Dorsey to allow him to record some solo songs. Dorsey eventually relented, and on January 19, 1942, Sinatra recorded "Night and Day", "The Night We Called It a Day", "The Song is You" and "Lamplighter's Serenade" at a Bluebird recording session, with Axel Stordahl as arranger and conductor.  Sinatra first heard the recordings at the Hollywood Palladium and Hollywood Plaza and was astounded at how good he sounded. Stordahl recalled: "He just couldn't believe his ears. He was so excited, you almost believed he had never recorded before. I think this was a turning point in his career. I think he began to see what he might do on his own". 
After the 1942 recordings, Sinatra believed he needed to go solo,  with an insatiable desire to compete with Bing Crosby, [n] but he was hampered by his contract which gave Dorsey 43% of Sinatra's lifetime earnings in the entertainment industry.  A legal battle ensued, eventually settled in August 1943.  [o] On September 3, 1942, Dorsey bid farewell to Sinatra, reportedly saying as Sinatra left, "I hope you fall on your ass".  He replaced Sinatra with singer Dick Haymes.  Rumors began spreading in newspapers that Sinatra's mobster godfather, Willie Moretti, coerced Dorsey to let Sinatra out of his contract for a few thousand dollars, holding a gun to his head.  [p] Sinatra persuaded Stordahl to leave Dorsey with him and become his personal arranger, offering him $650 a month, five times the salary of Dorsey.  Dorsey and Sinatra, who had been very close, never patched up their differences before Dorsey's death in 1956, worsened by the fact that Dorsey occasionally made biting comments to the press such as "he's the most fascinating man in the world, but don't put your hand in the cage". 
Onset of Sinatramania and role in World War II (1942–1945) Edit
By May 1941, Sinatra topped the male singer polls in Billboard and Down Beat magazines.  His appeal to bobby soxers, as teenage girls of that time were called, revealed a whole new audience for popular music, which had been recorded mainly for adults up to that time.  The phenomenon became officially known as "Sinatramania" after his "legendary opening" at the Paramount Theatre in New York on December 30, 1942.  According to Nancy Sinatra, Jack Benny later said, "I thought the goddamned building was going to cave in. I never heard such a commotion ... All this for a fellow I never heard of."  Sinatra performed for four weeks at the theatre, his act following the Benny Goodman orchestra, after which his contract was renewed for another four weeks by Bob Weitman due to his popularity. He became known as "Swoonatra" or "The Voice", and his fans "Sinatratics". They organized meetings and sent masses of letters of adoration, and within a few weeks of the show, some 1000 Sinatra fan clubs had been reported across the US.  Sinatra's publicist, George Evans, encouraged interviews and photographs with fans, and was the man responsible for depicting Sinatra as a vulnerable, shy, Italian–American with a rough childhood who made good.  When Sinatra returned to the Paramount in October 1944 only 250 persons left the first show, and 35,000 fans left outside caused a near riot, known as the Columbus Day Riot, outside the venue because they were not allowed in.    Such was the bobby-soxer devotion to Sinatra that they were known to write Sinatra's song titles on their clothing, bribe hotel maids for an opportunity to touch his bed, and accost his person in the form of stealing clothing he was wearing, most commonly his bow-tie. 
Sinatra signed with Columbia Records as a solo artist on June 1, 1943 during the 1942–44 musicians' strike.  Columbia Records re-released Harry James and Sinatra's August 1939 version of "All or Nothing at All",  which reached number 2 on June 2, and was on the best-selling list for 18 weeks.  He initially had great success,  and performed on the radio on Your Hit Parade from February 1943 until December 1944,  and on stage. Columbia wanted new recordings of their growing star as quickly as possible, so Alec Wilder was hired as an arranger and conductor for several sessions with a vocal group called the Bobby Tucker Singers.  These first sessions were on June 7, June 22, August 5, and November 10, 1943. Of the nine songs recorded during these sessions, seven charted on the best-selling list.  That year he also made his first solo nightclub appearance at New York's Riobamba,  and a successful concert in the Wedgewood Room of the prestigious Waldorf-Astoria New York that year secured his popularity in New York high society.  Sinatra released "You'll Never Know", "Close to You", "Sunday, Monday, or Always" and "People Will Say We're in Love" as singles. By the end of 1943 he was more popular in a Down Beat poll than Bing Crosby, Perry Como, Bob Eberly and Dick Haymes. 
Sinatra ( left ) on the Armed Forces Radio in 1944
Sinatra did not serve in the military during World War II. On December 11, 1943, he was officially classified 4-F ("Registrant not acceptable for military service") by his draft board because of a perforated eardrum. However, army files reported that Sinatra was "not acceptable material from a psychiatric viewpoint", but his emotional instability was hidden to avoid "undue unpleasantness for both the selectee and the induction service".  Briefly, there were rumors reported by columnist Walter Winchell that Sinatra paid $40,000 to avoid the service, but the FBI found this to be without merit.    Toward the end of the war, Sinatra entertained the troops during several successful overseas USO tours with comedian Phil Silvers.  During one trip to Rome he met the Pope, who asked him if he was an operatic tenor.  Sinatra worked frequently with the popular Andrews Sisters in radio the 1940s,  and many USO shows were broadcast to troops via the Armed Forces Radio Service (AFRS).  In 1944 Sinatra released "I Couldn't Sleep a Wink Last Night" as a single and recorded his own version of Crosby's "White Christmas", and the following year he released "I Dream of You (More Than You Dream I Do)", "Saturday Night (Is the Loneliest Night of the Week)", "Dream" and "Nancy (with the Laughing Face)" as singles. 
Columbia years and career slump (1946–1952) Edit
Sinatra in November 1950
Despite being heavily involved in political activity in 1945 and 1946, in those two years Sinatra sang on 160 radio shows, recorded 36 times, and shot four films. By 1946 he was performing on stage up to 45 times a week, singing up to 100 songs daily, and earning up to $93,000 a week. 
In 1946 Sinatra released "Oh! What it Seemed to Be", "Day by Day", "They Say It's Wonderful", "Five Minutes More" and "The Coffee Song" as singles,  and launched his first album, The Voice of Frank Sinatra ,  which reached No. 1 on the Billboard chart. William Ruhlmann of AllMusic noted that Sinatra "took the material very seriously, singing the love lyrics with utter seriousness", and that his "singing and the classically influenced settings gave the songs unusual depth of meaning".  He was soon selling ten million records a year.  Such was Sinatra's command at Columbia that his love of conducting was indulged with the release of the set Frank Sinatra Conducts the Music of Alec Wilder , an offering unlikely to appeal to Sinatra's core fanbase at the time, which consisted of teenage girls.  The following year he released his second album, Songs by Sinatra , featuring songs of a similar mood and tempo such as Irving Berlin's "How Deep is the Ocean?" and Harold Arlen's and Jerome Kern's "All The Things You Are".  "Mam'selle", composed by Edmund Goulding with lyrics by Mack Gordon for the film The Razor's Edge (1946),  was released as a single.  Sinatra had competition; versions by Art Lund, Dick Haymes, Dennis Day, and The Pied Pipers also reached the top ten of the Billboard charts.  In December he recorded "Sweet Lorraine" with the Metronome All-Stars, featuring talented jazz musicians such as Coleman Hawkins, Harry Carney and Charlie Shavers, with Nat King Cole on piano, in what Charles L. Granata describes as "one of the highlights of Sinatra's Columbia epoch". 
Sinatra's third album, Christmas Songs by Sinatra , was originally released in 1948 as a 78 rpm album set,  and a 10" LP record was released two years later.  When Sinatra was featured as a priest in The Miracle of the Bells , due to press negativity surrounding his alleged Mafia connections at the time, [q] it was announced to the public that Sinatra would donate his $100,000 in wages from the film to the church.  By the end of 1948, Sinatra had slipped to fourth on Down Beat' s annual poll of most popular singers (behind Billy Eckstine, Frankie Laine, and Bing Crosby).  and in the following year he was pushed out of the top spots in polls for the first time since 1943.  Frankly Sentimental (1949) was panned by Down Beat , who commented that "for all his talent, it seldom comes to life". 
Though "The Hucklebuck" reached the top ten,  it was his last single release under the Columbia label.  Sinatra's last two albums with Columbia, Dedicated to You and Sing and Dance with Frank Sinatra , were released in 1950.  Sinatra would later feature a number of the Sing and Dance with Frank Sinatra album's songs, including "Lover", "It's Only a Paper Moon", "It All Depends on You", on his 1961 Capitol release, Sinatra's Swingin' Session!!! . 
Cementing the low of his career was the death of publicist George Evans from a heart attack in January 1950 at 48. According to Jimmy Van Heusen, Sinatra's close friend and songwriter, Evans's death to him was "an enormous shock which defies words", as he had been crucial to his career and popularity with the bobbysoxers.  Sinatra's reputation continued to decline as reports broke out in February of his affair with Ava Gardner and the destruction of his marriage to Nancy,  though he insisted that his marriage had long been over even before he had met Gardner.  In April, Sinatra was engaged to perform at the Copa club in New York, but had to cancel five days of the booking due to suffering a submucosal hemorrhage of the throat.  Evans once noted that whenever Sinatra suffered from a bad throat and loss of voice it was always due to emotional tension which "absolutely destroyed him". 
The Desert Inn, Las Vegas, where Sinatra began performing in 1951
In financial difficulty following his divorce and career decline, Sinatra was forced to borrow $200,000 from Columbia to pay his back taxes after MCA refused to front the money.  Rejected by Hollywood, he turned to Las Vegas and made his debut at the Desert Inn in September 1951,  and also began singing at the Riverside Hotel in Reno, Nevada. Sinatra became one of Las Vegas's pioneer residency entertainers,  and a prominent figure on the Vegas scene throughout the 1950s and 1960s onwards, a period described by Rojek as the "high-water mark" of Sinatra's "hedonism and self absorption". Rojek notes that the Rat Pack "provided an outlet for gregarious banter and wisecracks", but argues that it was Sinatra's vehicle, possessing an "unassailable command over the other performers".  Sinatra would fly to Las Vegas from Los Angeles in Van Heusen's single-engine plane.  On October 4, 1953, Sinatra made his first performance at the Sands Hotel and Casino, after an invitation by the manager Jack Entratter,  who had previously worked at the Copa in New York.  Sinatra typically performed there three times a year, and later acquired a share in the hotel.  [r]
Sinatra's decline in popularity was evident at his concert appearances. At a brief run at the Paramount in New York he drew small audiences.  At the Desert Inn in Las Vegas he performed to half-filled houses of wildcatters and ranchers.  At a concert at Chez Paree in Chicago, only 150 people in a 1,200-seat capacity venue turned up to see him.  By April 1952 he was performing at the Kauai County Fair in Hawaii.  Sinatra's relationship with Columbia Records was also disintegrating, with A&R executive Mitch Miller claiming he "couldn't give away" the singer's records.  [s] Though several notable recordings were made during this time period, such as "If I Could Write a Book" in January 1952, which Granata sees as a "turning point", forecasting his later work with its sensitivity,  Columbia and MCA dropped him later that year.  His last studio recording for Columbia, "Why Try To Change Me Now", was recorded in New York on September 17, 1952, with orchestra arranged and conducted by Percy Faith.  Journalist Burt Boyar observed, "Sinatra had had it. It was sad. From the top to the bottom in one horrible lesson." 
Career revival and the Capitol years (1953–1962) Edit
Nelson Riddle, Sinatra's album arranger for Capitol Records
The release of the film From Here to Eternity in August 1953 marked the beginning of a remarkable career revival.  Santopietro notes that Sinatra began to bury himself in his work, with an "unparalleled frenetic schedule of recordings, movies and concerts",  in what authors Anthony Summers and Robbyn Swan describe as "a new and brilliant phase".  On March 13, 1953, Sinatra met with Capitol Records vice president Alan Livingston and signed a seven-year recording contract.  His first session for Capitol took place at KHJ studios at Studio C, 5515 Melrose Avenue in Los Angeles, with Axel Stordahl conducting.  The session produced four recordings, including "I'm Walking Behind You",  Sinatra's first Capitol single.  After spending two weeks on location in Hawaii filming From Here to Eternity , Sinatra returned to KHJ on April 30 for his first recording session with Nelson Riddle, an established arranger and conductor at Capitol who was Nat King Cole's musical director.  After recording the first song, "I've Got the World on a String", Sinatra offered Riddle a rare expression of praise, "Beautiful!",  and after listening to the playbacks, he could not hide his enthusiasm, exclaiming, "I'm back, baby, I'm back!" 
In subsequent sessions in May and November 1953,  Sinatra and Riddle developed and refined their musical collaboration, with Sinatra providing specific guidance on the arrangements.  Sinatra's first album for Capitol, Songs for Young Lovers , was released on January 4, 1954, and included "A Foggy Day", "I Get a Kick Out of You", "My Funny Valentine", "Violets for Your Furs" and "They Can't Take That Away from Me",  songs which became staples of his later concerts.   That same month, Sinatra and Doris Day released the single "Young at Heart", which reached #2 and was awarded Song of the Year.    [t] In March, he recorded and released the single "Three Coins in the Fountain", a "powerful ballad"  that reached #4.  Sinatra's second album with Riddle, Swing Easy! , which reflected his "love for the jazz idiom" according to Granata,  was released on August 2 of that year and included "Just One of Those Things", "Taking a Chance on Love", "Get Happy", and "All of Me".   Swing Easy! was named Album of the Year by Billboard , and he was also named "Favorite Male Vocalist" by Billboard , Down Beat , and Metronome that year.   Sinatra came to consider Riddle "the greatest arranger in the world",  and Riddle, who considered Sinatra "a perfectionist",  offered equal praise of the singer, observing, "It's not only that his intuitions as to tempi, phrasing, and even configuration are amazingly right, but his taste is so impeccable ... there is still no one who can approach him." 
In 1955 Sinatra released In the Wee Small Hours , his first 12" LP,  featuring songs such as "In the Wee Small Hours of the Morning", "Mood Indigo", "Glad to Be Unhappy" and "When Your Lover Has Gone".  According to Granata it was the first concept album of his to make a "single persuasive statement", with an extended program and "melancholy mood".  Sinatra embarked on his first tour of Australia the same year.  Another collaboration with Riddle resulted in the development of Songs for Swingin' Lovers! , sometimes seen as one of his best albums, which was released in March 1956.  It features a recording of "I've Got You Under My Skin" by Cole Porter,  something which Sinatra paid meticulous care to, taking a reported 22 takes to perfect. 
His February 1956 recording sessions inaugurated the studios at the Capitol Records Building,  complete with a 56-piece symphonic orchestra.  According to Granata his recordings of "Night and Day", "Oh! Look At Me Now" and "From This Moment On" revealed "powerful sexual overtones, stunningly achieved through the mounting tension and release of Sinatra's best-teasing vocal lines", while his recording of "River, Stay 'Way from My Door" in April demonstrated his "brilliance as a syncopational improviser".  Riddle noted that Sinatra took "particular delight" in singing "The Lady is a Tramp", commenting that he "always sang that song with a certain amount of salaciousness", making "cue tricks" with the lyrics.  His penchant for conducting was displayed again in 1956's Frank Sinatra Conducts Tone Poems of Color , an instrumental album that has been interpreted to be a catharsis to his failed relationship with Gardner.  Also that year, Sinatra sang at the Democratic National Convention, and performed with The Dorsey Brothers for a week soon afterwards at the Paramount Theatre. 
Sinatra in 1957
In 1957, Sinatra released Close to You , A Swingin' Affair! and Where Are You? —his first album in stereo, with Gordon Jenkins.  Granata considers "Close to You" to have been thematically his closest concept album to perfection during the "golden" era, and Nelson Riddle's finest work, which was "extremely progressive" by the stands of the day. It is structured like a three-act play, each commencing with the songs "With Every Breath I Take", "Blame It On My Youth" and "It Could Happen to You".  For Granata, Sinatra's A Swingin' Affair! and swing music predecessor Songs for Swingin' Lovers! solidified "Sinatra's image as a 'swinger', from both a musical and visual standpoint". Buddy Collette considered the swing albums to have been heavily influenced by Sammy Davis, Jr., and noted that when he worked with Sinatra in the mid-1960s he approached a song much differently than he had done in the early 1950s.  On June 9, 1957, he performed in a 62-minute concert conducted by Riddle at the Seattle Civic Auditorium,  his first appearance in Seattle since 1945.  The recording was first released as a bootleg, but in 1999 Artanis Entertainment Group officially released it as the Sinatra '57 in Concert live album, after Sinatra's death.  In 1958 Sinatra released the album Come Fly with Me with Billy May.  It reached the top spot on the Billboard album chart in its second week, remaining at the top for five weeks,  and was nominated for the Grammy Award for Album of the Year at the inaugural Grammy Awards.  The title song, "Come Fly With Me", written especially for him, would become one of his best known standards.  On May 29 he recorded seven songs in a single session, more than double the usual yield of a recording session, and an eighth was planned, "Lush Life", but Sinatra found it too technically demanding.  In September, Sinatra released Frank Sinatra Sings for Only the Lonely , a stark collection of introspective [u] saloon songs and blues-tinged ballads which proved a huge commercial success, spending 120 weeks on Billboards album chart and peaking at No. 1.  Cuts from this LP, such as "Angel Eyes" and "One for My Baby (and One More for the Road)", would remain staples of the "saloon song" segments of Sinatra's concerts. 
In 1959, Sinatra released Come Dance with Me! , a highly successful, critically acclaimed album which stayed on Billboard's Pop album chart for 140 weeks, peaking at #2. It won the Grammy Award for Album of the Year, as well as Best Vocal Performance, Male and Best Arrangement for Billy May.  He also released No One Cares in the same year, a collection of "brooding, lonely" torch songs, which critic Stephen Thomas Erlewine thought was "nearly as good as its predecessor Where Are You? , but lacked the "lush" arrangements of it and the "grandiose melancholy" of Only the Lonely . 
In the words of Kelley, by 1959, Sinatra was "not simply the leader of the Rat Pack" but had "assumed the position of il padrone in Hollywood". He was asked by 20th Century Fox to be the master of ceremonies at a luncheon attended by President Nikita Khrushchev on September 19, 1959.  Nice 'n' Easy , a collection of ballads, topped the Billboard chart in October 1960 and remained in the charts for 86 weeks,  winning critical plaudits.   Granata noted the "lifelike ambient sound" quality of Nice and Easy , the perfection in the stereo balance, and the "bold, bright and snappy" sound of the band. He highlighted the "close, warm and sharp" feel of Sinatra's voice, particularly on the songs "September in the Rain", "I Concentrate on You", and "My Blue Heaven". 
Reprise years (1961–1981) Edit
Sinatra with Dean Martin and Judy Garland in 1962
Sinatra grew discontented at Capitol, and fell into a feud with Alan Livingston, which lasted over six months.  His first attempt at owning his own label was with his pursuit of buying declining jazz label, Verve Records, which ended once an initial agreement with Verve founder, Norman Granz, "failed to materialize."  He decided to form his own label, Reprise Records  and, in an effort to assert his new direction, temporarily parted with Riddle, May and Jenkins, working with other arrangers such as Neil Hefti, Don Costa, and Quincy Jones.  Sinatra built the appeal of Reprise Records as one in which artists were promised creative control over their music, as well as a guarantee that they would eventually gain "complete ownership of their work, including publishing rights."  Under Sinatra the company developed into a music industry "powerhouse", and he later sold it for an estimated $80 million.  His first album on the label, Ring-a-Ding-Ding! (1961), was a major success, peaking at No.4 on Billboard .  The album was released in February 1961, the same month that Reprise Records released Ben Webster's The Warm Moods , Sammy Davis, Jr.'s The Wham of Sam , Mavis River's Mavis and Joe E. Lewis's It is Now Post Time .  During the initial years of Reprise, Sinatra was still under contract to record for Capitol, completing his contractual commitment with the release of Point of No Return, recorded over a two day period on September 11 and 12, 1961.  In an effort to maintain his commercial viability in the 1960s, Sinatra recorded Elvis Presley's hit "Love Me Tender", and later recorded works by Paul Simon such as "Mrs. Robinson", the Beatles ("Something", "Yesterday"), and Joni Mitchell ("Both Sides, Now"). 
In 1962, Sinatra released Sinatra and Strings , a set of standard ballads arranged by Don Costa, which became one of the most critically acclaimed works of Sinatra's entire Reprise period. Frank Sinatra, Jr., who was present during the recording, noted the "huge orchestra", which Nancy Sinatra stated "opened a whole new era" in pop music, with orchestras getting bigger, embracing a "lush string sound".  Sinatra and Count Basie collaborated for the album Sinatra-Basie the same year,  a popular and successful release which prompted them to rejoin two years later for the follow-up It Might as Well Be Swing , arranged by Quincy Jones.  The two became frequent performers together,  and appeared at the Newport Jazz Festival in 1965.  Also in 1962, as the owner of his own record label, Sinatra was able to step on the podium as conductor again, releasing his third instrumental album Frank Sinatra Conducts Music from Pictures and Plays . 
Sinatra at the Grauman's Chinese Theatre in 1965
In 1963, Sinatra reunited with Nelson Riddle for The Concert Sinatra , an ambitious album featuring a 73-piece symphony orchestra arranged and conducted by Riddle. The concert was recorded on a motion picture scoring soundstage with the use of multiple synchronized recording machines that employed an optical signal onto 35 mm film designed for movie soundtracks. Granata considers the album to have been "impeachable" [sic], "one of the very best of the Sinatra-Riddle ballad albums", in which Sinatra displayed an impressive vocal range, particularly in "Ol' Man River", in which he darkened the hue.  In 1964 the song "My Kind of Town" was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Song.  Sinatra released Softly, as I Leave You ,  and collaborated with Bing Crosby and Fred Waring on America, I Hear You Singing , a collection of patriotic songs recorded as a tribute to the assassinated President John F. Kennedy.   Sinatra increasingly became involved in charitable pursuits in this period. In 1961 and 1962 he went to Mexico, with the sole purpose of putting on performances for Mexican charities, [v] and in July 1964 he was present for the dedication of the Frank Sinatra International Youth Center for Arab and Jewish children in Nazareth. 
Sinatra's phenomenal success in 1965, coinciding with his 50th birthday, prompted Billboard to proclaim that he may have reached the "peak of his eminence".  In June 1965, Sinatra, Sammy Davis, Jr., and Dean Martin played live in St. Louis to benefit Dismas House, a prisoner rehabilitation and training center with nationwide programs that in particular helped serve African Americans. The Rat Pack concert was broadcast live via satellite to numerous movie theaters across America.  The album September of My Years was released September 1965, and went on to win the Grammy Award for best album of the year.  Granata considers the album to have been one of the finest of his Reprise years, "a reflective throwback to the concept records of the 1950s, and more than any of those collections, distills everything that Frank Sinatra had ever learned or experienced as a vocalist".  One of the album's singles, "It Was a Very Good Year", won the Grammy Award for Best Vocal Performance, Male.  A career anthology, A Man and His Music , followed in November, winning Album of the Year at the Grammys the following year. 
The Sands Hotel and Casino in 1959
In 1966 Sinatra released That's Life , with both the single of "That's Life" and album becoming Top Ten hits in the US on Billboard' s pop charts.  Strangers in the Night went on to top the Billboard and UK pop singles charts,   winning the award for Record of the Year at the Grammys.  Sinatra's first live album, Sinatra at the Sands , was recorded during January and February 1966 at the Sands Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas. Sinatra was backed by the Count Basie Orchestra, with Quincy Jones conducting.  Sinatra pulled out from the Sands the following year, when he was driven out by its new owner Howard Hughes, after a fight.  [w]
Sinatra started 1967 with a series of recording sessions with Antônio Carlos Jobim. He recorded one of his most famous collaborations with Jobim, the Grammy-nominated album Francis Albert Sinatra & Antônio Carlos Jobim , which was one of the best-selling albums of the year, behind the Beatles's Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band .  According to Santopietro the album "consists of an extraordinarily effective blend of bossa nova and slightly swinging jazz vocals, and succeeds in creating an unbroken mood of romance and regret".  Writer Stan Cornyn noted that Sinatra sang so softly on the album that it was comparable to the time that he suffered from a vocal hemorrhage in 1950.  Sinatra also released the album The World We Knew , which features a chart-topping duet of "Somethin' Stupid" with daughter Nancy.   In December, Sinatra collaborated with Duke Ellington on the album Francis A. & Edward K. .  According to Granata, the recording of "Indian Summer" on the album was a favorite of Riddle's, noting the "contemplative mood [which] is heightened by a Johnny Hodges alto sax solo that will bring a tear to your eye".  With Sinatra in mind, singer-songwriter Paul Anka wrote the song "My Way", using the melody of the French "Comme d'habitude" ("As Usual"), composed by Claude François and Jacques Revaux.  Sinatra recorded it just after Christmas 1968.  "My Way", Sinatra's best-known song on the Reprise label, was not an instant success, charting at #27 in the US and #5 in the UK,  but it remained in the UK charts for 122 weeks, including 75 non-consecutive weeks in the Top 40, between April 1969 and September 1971, which was still a record in 2015.   Sinatra told songwriter Ervin Drake in the 1970s that he "detested" singing the song, because he believed audiences would think it was a "self-aggrandizing tribute", professing that he "hated boastfulness in others". 
"Retirement" and return (1970–1981) Edit
Caesars Palace in 1970, where Sinatra performed from 1967 to 1970 and 1973 onwards
In 1970, Sinatra released Watertown , one of his most acclaimed concept albums, with music by Bob Gaudio (of the Four Seasons) and lyrics by Jake Holmes.  However, it sold a mere 30,000 copies that year and reached a peak chart position of 101.  He left Caesars Palace in September that year after an incident where executive Sanford Waterman pulled a gun on him. [x] He performed several charity concerts with Count Basie at the Royal Festival Hall in London.  On November 2, 1970, Sinatra recorded the last songs for Reprise Records before his self-imposed retirement,  announced the following June at a concert in Hollywood to raise money for the Motion Picture and TV Relief Fund.  He finished the concert with a "rousing" performance of "That's Life", and stated "Excuse me while I disappear" as he left the stage.  He told LIFE journalist Thomas Thompson that "I've got things to do, like the first thing is not to do anything at all for eight months ... maybe a year",  while Barbara Sinatra later claimed that Sinatra had grown "tired of entertaining people, especially when all they really wanted were the same old tunes he had long ago become bored by".  While he was in retirement, President Richard Nixon asked him to perform at a Young Voters Rally in anticipation of the upcoming campaign. Sinatra obliged and chose to sing "My Kind of Town" for the rally held in Chicago on October 20, 1972. 
In 1973, Sinatra came out of his short-lived retirement with a television special and album. The album, entitled Ol' Blue Eyes Is Back ,  arranged by Gordon Jenkins and Don Costa,  was a success, reaching number 13 on Billboard and number 12 in the UK.   The television special, Magnavox Presents Frank Sinatra , reunited Sinatra with Gene Kelly. He initially developed problems with his vocal cords during the comeback due to a prolonged period without singing.  That Christmas he performed at the Sahara Hotel in Las Vegas,  and returned to Caesars Palace the following month in January 1974, despite previously vowing to perform there again [sic].  He began what Barbara Sinatra describes as a "massive comeback tour of the United States, Europe, the Far East and Australia".  In July, while on a second tour of Australia,  he caused an uproar by describing journalists there – who were aggressively pursuing his every move and pushing for a press conference – as "bums, parasites, fags, and buck-and-a-half hookers".  After he was pressured to apologize, Sinatra instead insisted that the journalists apologize for "fifteen years of abuse I have taken from the world press".  In the end, Sinatra's lawyer, Mickey Rudin, arranged a final concert which was televised to the nation, and Sinatra was given the opportunity to say "I love your attitude, I love your booze" to the Australian people.  In October 1974 he appeared at New York City's Madison Square Garden in a televised concert that was later released as an album under the title The Main Event – Live . Backing him was bandleader Woody Herman and the Young Thundering Herd, who accompanied Sinatra on a European tour later that month.  
At the White House, 1973
In 1975, Sinatra performed in concerts in New York with Count Basie and Ella Fitzgerald, and at the London Palladium with Basie and Sarah Vaughan, and in Tehran at Aryamehr Stadium, giving 140 performances in 105 days.  In August he held several consecutive concerts at Lake Tahoe together with the newly-risen singer John Denver,   who became a frequent collaborator.  Sinatra had recorded Denver's "Leaving on a Jet Plane" and "My Sweet Lady" for Sinatra & Company (1971),   and according to Denver, his song "A Baby Just Like You" was written at Sinatra's request for his new grandchild, Angela.  During the Labor Day weekend held in 1976, Sinatra was responsible for reuniting old friends and comedy partners Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis for the first time in nearly twenty years, when they performed at the "Jerry Lewis MDA Telethon".   That year, the Friars Club selected him as the "Top Box Office Name of the Century", and he was given the Scopus Award by the American Friends of Hebrew University in Israel and an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from the University of Nevada. 
Sinatra continued to perform at Caesars Palace in the late 1970s, and was performing there in January 1977 when his mother Dolly died in a plane crash on the way to see him.  [y]  He cancelled two weeks of shows and spent time recovering from the shock in Barbados.  In March, he performed in front of Princess Margaret at the Royal Albert Hall in London, raising money for the NSPCC.  On March 14, he recorded with Nelson Riddle for the last time, recording the songs Linda , Sweet Loraine , and Barbara .  The two men had a major falling out, and later patched up their differences in January 1985 at a dinner organized for Ronald Reagan, when Sinatra asked Riddle to make another album with him. Riddle was ill at the time, and died that October, before they had a chance to record. 
In 1978, Sinatra filed a $1 million lawsuit against a land developer for using his name in the "Frank Sinatra Drive Center" in West Los Angeles.  During a party at Caesars in 1979, he was awarded the Grammy Trustees Award, while celebrating 40 years in show business and his 64th birthday.   That year, former President Gerald Ford awarded Sinatra the International Man of the Year Award,  and he performed in front of the Egyptian pyramids for Anwar Sadat, which raised more than $500,000 for Sadat's wife's charities. 
In 1980, Sinatra's first album in six years was released, Trilogy: Past Present Future , a highly ambitious triple album that features an array of songs from both the pre-rock era and rock era.  It was the first studio album of Sinatra's to feature his touring pianist at the time, Vinnie Falcone, and was based on an idea by Sonny Burke.  The album garnered six Grammy nominations – winning for best liner notes – and peaked at number 17 on Billboard' s album chart,  and spawned yet another song that would become a signature tune, "Theme from New York, New York".  That year, as part of the Concert of the Americas, he performed in the Maracana Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which broke records for the "largest live paid audience ever recorded for a solo performer".  The following year, Sinatra built on the success of Trilogy with She Shot Me Down , an album that was praised for embodying the dark tone of his Capitol years.  Also in 1981, Sinatra was embroiled in controversy when he worked a ten-day engagement for $2 million in Sun City, in the internationally unrecognized Bophuthatswana, breaking a cultural boycott against apartheid-era South Africa. President Lucas Mangope awarded Sinatra with the highest honor, the Order of the Leopard, and made him an honorary tribal chief. 
Later career (1982–1998) Edit
Sinatra signed a $16 million three-year deal with the Golden Nugget Las Vegas in 1982
Santopietro stated that by the early 1980s, Sinatra's voice had "coarsened, losing much of its power and flexibility, but audiences didn't care".  In 1982, he signed a $16 million three-year deal with the Golden Nugget of Las Vegas. Kelley notes that by this period Sinatra's voice had grown "darker, tougher and loamier", but he "continued to captivate audiences with his immutable magic". She added that his baritone voice "sometimes cracked, but the gliding intonations still aroused the same raptures of delight as they had at the Paramount Theater".  That year he made a reported further $1.3 million from the Showtime television rights to his "Concert of the Americas" in the Dominican Republic, $1.6 million for a concert series at Carnegie Hall, and $250,000 in just one evening at the Chicago Fest. He donated a lot of his earnings to charity.  He put on a performance at the White House for the Italian Prime Minister, and performed at the Radio City Music Hall with Luciano Pavarotti and George Shearing. 
Sinatra was selected as one of the five recipients of the 1983 Kennedy Center Honors, alongside Katherine Dunham, James Stewart, Elia Kazan, and Virgil Thomson. Quoting Henry James, President Reagan said in honoring his old friend that "art was the shadow of humanity" and that Sinatra had "spent his life casting a magnificent and powerful shadow".  On September 21, 1983, Sinatra filed a $2 million court case against Kitty Kelley, suing her in punitive damages, before her unofficial biography, His Way , was even published. The book became a best-seller for "all the wrong reasons" and "the most eye-opening celebrity biography of our time", according to William Safire of The New York Times .  Sinatra was always adamant that such a book would be written on his terms, and he himself would "set the record straight" in details of his life.  According to Kelley, the family detested her and the book, which took its toll on Sinatra's health. Kelley claims that Tina Sinatra blamed her for her father's colon surgery in 1986.  He was forced to drop the case on September 19, 1984, with several leading newspapers expressing concerns about his views on censorship. 
In 1984, Sinatra worked with Quincy Jones for the first time in nearly two decades on the album, L.A. Is My Lady , which was well received critically.  The album was a substitute for another Jones project, an album of duets with Lena Horne, which had to be abandoned. [z] In 1986, Sinatra collapsed on stage while performing in Atlantic City and was hospitalized for diverticulitis,  which left him looking frail.  Two years later, Sinatra reunited with Martin and Davis, Jr. and went on the Rat Pack Reunion Tour, during which they played a number of large arenas. When Martin dropped out of the tour early on, a rift developed between them and the two never spoke again. 
On June 6, 1988, Sinatra made his last recordings with Reprise for an album which was not released. He recorded "My Foolish Heart," "Cry Me A River," and other songs. Sinatra never completed the project, but take number 18 of "My Foolish Heart" may be heard in The Complete Reprise Studio Recordings (1995). 
Sinatra with Brendan Grace in 1991
In 1990, Sinatra was awarded the second "Ella Award" by the Los Angeles-based Society of Singers, and performed for a final time with Ella Fitzgerald at the award ceremony.  Sinatra maintained an active touring schedule in the early 1990s, performing 65 concerts in 1990, 73 in 1991 and 84 in 1992 in seventeen different countries. 
In 1993, Sinatra returned to Capitol Records and the recording studio for Duets , which became his best-selling album.  The album and its sequel, Duets II , released the following year,  would see Sinatra remake his classic recordings with popular contemporary performers, who added their vocals to a pre-recorded tape.  During his tours in the early 1990s, his memory failed him at times during concerts, and he fainted onstage in Richmond, Virginia, in March 1994.  His final public concerts were held in Fukuoka Dome in Japan on December 19–20, 1994.  The following year, Sinatra sang for the very last time on February 25, 1995, before a live audience of 1200 select guests at the Palm Desert Marriott Ballroom, on the closing night of the Frank Sinatra Desert Classic golf tournament.  Esquire reported of the show that Sinatra was "clear, tough, on the money" and "in absolute control".  Sinatra was awarded the Legend Award at the 1994 Grammy Awards, where he was introduced by Bono, who said of him, "Frank's the chairman of the bad attitude ... Rock 'n roll plays at being tough, but this guy is the boss – the chairman of boss ... I'm not going to mess with him, are you?"  
In 1995, to mark Sinatra's 80th birthday, the Empire State Building glowed blue.  A star-studded birthday tribute, Sinatra: 80 Years My Way , was held at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, featuring performers such as Ray Charles, Little Richard, Natalie Cole and Salt-N-Pepa singing his songs.  At the end of the program Sinatra graced the stage for the last time to sing the final notes of the "Theme from New York, New York" with an ensemble.  In recognition of his many years of association with Las Vegas, Frank Sinatra was elected to the Gaming Hall of Fame in 1997. 
Sinatra, the musician Edit
"He'd always been critical of his voice, and that only intensified as he got older. He never liked to discuss a performance afterward because he knew his voice wasn't as good as it used to be. If someone told him he'd been great, he'd reply, 'It was a nice crowd, but my reed was off' or 'I wasn't so good on the third number'. Strangely, in spite of his hearing problems, he had the most incredible ear, which often drove those he worked with nuts. There could be an orchestra of a hundred musicians, and if one played a bum note he'd know exactly who was responsible."
—Barbara Sinatra on Sinatra's voice and musical understanding. 
While Sinatra never formally learned how to read music, he had a fine, natural understanding of it,  and he worked very hard from a young age to improve his abilities in all aspects of music.  He did, however, learn to follow a lead sheet during a performance by "carefully following the patterns and groupings of notes arranged on the page" and made his own notations to the music, using his ear to detect semi-tonal differences.  Granata states that some of the most accomplished classically trained musicians soon noticed his musical understanding, and remarked that Sinatra had a "sixth sense", which "demonstrated unusual proficiency when it came to detecting incorrect notes and sounds within the orchestra".  Sinatra was an aficionado of classical music,  and would often request classical strains in his music, inspired by composers such as Puccini and Impressionist masters. His personal favorite was Ralph Vaughan Williams.  He would insist on always recording live with the band because it gave him a "certain feeling" to perform live surrounded by musicians.  By the mid 1940s, such was his understanding of music that after hearing an air check of some compositions by Alec Wilder which were for strings and woodwinds, he became the conductor at Columbia Records for six of Wilder's compositions: "Air for Oboe", "Air for English Horn", "Air for Flute", "Air for Bassoon", "Slow Dance" and "Theme and Variations". [aa] The works, which combine elements of jazz and classical music, were considered by Wilder to have been among the finest renditions and recordings of his compositions, past or present.  At one recording session with arranger Claus Ogerman and an orchestra, Sinatra heard "a couple of little strangers" in the string section, prompting Ogerman to make corrections to what were thought to be copyist's errors.  Critic Gene Lees, a lyricist and the author of the words to the Jobim melody "This Happy Madness", expressed amazement when he heard Sinatra's recording of it on Sinatra & Company (1971), considering him to have delivered the lyrics to perfection.